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constraint – The factor thatultimately limits the performance of a system or organization. The factor that,if the organization were able to increase it, more fully exploit it, or moreeffectively subordinate to it, would result in achieving more of the goal.
Perspective: Theexistence of system constraints, and the fact that organizational performancecan be improved by identifying and carefully managing or eliminating theconstraints are the foundation of TOC.
Illustration: In"The Goal" the company could not produce orders fast enough to meetmarket demand and two resources were limiting factors: the NCX 10 machine and aheat treat furnace. These resources were the constraints for UNICO. As UNICOexploited and subordinated to, and eventually elevated, both resources, UNICO‘sprofits increased. As UNICO continued to exploit the performance of theconstraints they eventually had the ability to produce more than theircustomers were buying and the constraint shifted to the lack of customerorders, i.e., the market became the constraint. UNICO then had to shift theapproach of the company to exploit and subordinate to this external constraint.
See: elevate, exploit,five focusing steps, subordinate.
阐释：在目标的小说中，工厂不能够生产足够快的订单来满足市场需求并且2种资源是限制因素-一台NCX 10设备 和一台热处理炉。这些资源是优尼公司的制约因素。因为优尼公司挖掘、迁就并提升了这两个资源，优尼公司的利润就增加了。由于优尼公司持续的挖掘这些制约因素的绩效表现他们最终拥有能够生产比客户过去购买量更多的能力，而且制约因素转移为缺少客户订单，如这个市场变成了制约因素。优尼公司不得不转移公司的策略来挖掘和迁就这一外部制约因素。